Ok, thanks. I knew that once. I guess I just forgot, and they weren't mentioned on the particular USHPA link I checked (as noted in previous post).
Re student ratings: clearly they are aimed in large part at making sure the tandem student pilot has been "educated" enough to know what NOT to do, to avoid crashing the tandem glider. In that particular limited sense, I guess you could certainly say that virtually all tandem students and passengers do receive a certain amount of education / instruction!
"12-02.05 Student Hang Gliding Rating (H0)
A. Requirements for Student Pilots flying tandem
A Student pilot has the basic knowledge required to understand and accept the risks of flying as a
tandem passenger on a hang glider. This includes:
1. A basic understanding of the process involved in launching, flying and landing modern
2. An understanding that a hang glider is controlled through weight shift and that control is
hampered by holding any part of the vehicle other than where the Instructor indicates.
3. An understanding that to foot launch a tandem flight, the Student and the Instructor must
run efficiently together to produce airspeed to launch.
4. An understanding that the Student must pay attention to the Instructor’s commands at all
times and be capable of carrying out those instructions.
5. An understanding of the reasons for, techniques used, and deployment of a backup
6. Must be advised that tandem flights on a hang glider is conducted under an exemption
granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the glider is not certified for
tandem flight by the FAA
B. Recommended Operating Limitations for Student Pilots flying solo
1. It is highly recommended that all flights be made under the direct supervision of a
USHPA Certified Basic or Advanced Instructor. "